The National Systems of Innovation (NSI) of Latin American countries have been shaped by a set of factors. First, institutional building emerged from the intertwining of old institutions generated during the import substitution period and new institutions that emerged after the liberalization process since the 1980s, which sometimes implies lack of consistence in policy guidelines. Second, persistent macro instability and dramatic crises episodes (in the 1980s, 1990s, and currently) affected the long-term behaviour and performance of firms in the region. Third, levels of poverty reflect social needs that have not been satisfied, and income inequality creates power asymmetries, which
undermine the possibility of building durable consensus and divert the design of public policy from the needs of the majority.

Partly as a consequence of these factors, the NSIs of Latin American countries have not followed the path of learning societies (Arocena and Sutz 2000): innovative capabilities are rather poor [e.g., low investment in private research and development (R&D)]; the proportion of human resources in science and technology (S&T) is low; and there is a general perception that the interactions between universities and public research organizations (PROs), and industry are weak (Cimoli 2000; Cassiolato, Lastres and Maciel, 2003; López 2007; Dutrénit et al. 2010)

Autores: Valeria Arza y Gabriela Dutrénit 

Versión enviada para su publicación en Eduardo Albuquerque , Wilson Suzigan , Glenda Kruss , Keun Lee. (Eds.) Developing National Systems Of Innovation University–Industry Interactions in the Global South, Edward Elgar.

Cita: Dutrénit, G. and  Arza, V. (2014) ‘Chapter 3. Features of Academy-Industry Interaction in Latin American Countries: The Perspectiver of Researchers and Firms’, in G. Kruss, K. Lee, W. Suzigan and E. Alburqueque (ed.), Changing dominant patterns of interactions: lessons from an investigation on universities and firms in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 127-173

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